Cheruiyot pulled away from Ethiopians Meseret Defar and Sentayehu Ejigu over the final 400 meters to win in 16 minutes, 18.72 seconds.
In the sprint events, Ben Youssef Meite of Ivory Coast won the men’s 100 in 10.08 seconds with Ghana’s Zakari Aziz second in 10.12 and South Africa’s Simon Magakwe taking bronze in 10.14.
Blessing Okagbare of Nigeria won the women’s 100 in 11.03 seconds, equaling her personal best. Perennes Pau Zang Milama of Gabon won silver in 11.15, while Nigeria’s Osayemi Damola was third in 11.22.
Adigun Seun of Nigeria won the women’s 100 hurdles in 13.14 seconds, while Senegal’s Gnima Faye took silver in 13.67.
More than 700 athletes from 53 African countries are taking part in the meet.
Security at the 17th edition of the biennial championships was intensified following the twin bomb attacks in Uganda’s capital Kampala that killed 76 people during the World Cup final on July 11.